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Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jun 1;59(11):1052-60. Epub 2006 Apr 3.

Eszopiclone co-administered with fluoxetine in patients with insomnia coexisting with major depressive disorder.

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Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.



Insomnia and major depressive disorder (MDD) can coexist. This study evaluated the effect of adding eszopiclone to fluoxetine.


Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for both MDD and insomnia (n = 545) received morning fluoxetine and were randomized to nightly eszopiclone 3 mg (ESZ+FLX) or placebo (PBO+FLX) for 8 weeks. Subjective sleep and daytime function were assessed weekly. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) and the Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) and Severity items (CGI-S).


Patients in the ESZ+FLX group had significantly decreased sleep latency, wake time after sleep onset (WASO), increased total sleep time (TST), sleep quality, and depth of sleep at all double-blind time points (all p < .05). Eszopiclone co-therapy also resulted in: significantly greater changes in HAM-D-17 scores at Week 4 (p = .01) with progressive improvement at Week 8 (p = .002); significantly improved CGI-I and CGI-S scores at all time points beyond Week 1 (p < .05); and significantly more responders (59% vs. 48%; p = .009) and remitters (42% vs. 33%; p = .03) at Week 8. Treatment was well tolerated, with similar adverse event and dropout rates.


In this study, eszopiclone/fluoxetine co-therapy was relatively well tolerated and associated with rapid, substantial, and sustained sleep improvement, a faster onset of antidepressant response on the basis of CGI, and a greater magnitude of the antidepressant effect.

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