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J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2006 Aug;192(8):845-55. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

Aberrations of chick eyes during normal growth and lens induction of myopia.

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School of Optometry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1.


Understanding the control of eye growth may lead to the prevention of nearsightedness (myopia). Chicks develop refractive errors in response to defocusing lenses by changing the rate of eye elongation. Changes in optical image quality and the optical signal in lens compensation are not understood. Monochromatic ocular aberrations were measured in 16 chicks that unilaterally developed myopia in response to unilateral goggles with -15D lenses and in 6 chicks developing naturally. There is no significant difference in higher-order root mean square aberrations (RMSA) between control eyes of the goggled birds and eyes of naturally developing chicks. Higher-order RMSA for a constant pupil size exponentially decreases in the chick eye with age more slowly than defocus. In the presence of a defocusing lens, the exponential decrease begins after day 2. In goggled eyes, asymmetric aberrations initially increase significantly, followed by an exponential decrease. Higher-order RMSA is significantly higher in goggled eyes than in controls. Equivalent blur, a new measure of image quality that accounts for increasing pupil size with age, exponentially decreases with age. In goggled eyes, this decrease also occurs after day 2. The fine optical structure, reflected in higher-order aberrations, may be important in understanding normal development and the development of myopia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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