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J Biol Chem. 2006 May 26;281(21):14700-10. Epub 2006 Mar 30.

Attenuation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mediates gastrin-stimulated colorectal cancer cell proliferation.

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Section of Gastroenterology, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, 650 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA.


Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been shown to suppress cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas the gastrointestinal regulatory peptide gastrin stimulates the growth of neoplastic cells. The present studies were directed to determine whether changes in PPARgamma expression might mediate the effects of gastrin on the proliferation of colorectal cancer (CRC). Initially, using growth assays, we determined that the human CRC cell line DLD-1 expressed both functional PPARgamma and gastrin receptors. Amidated gastrin (G-17) attenuated the growth suppressing effects of PPARgamma by decreasing PPARgamma activity and total protein expression, in part through an increase in the rate of proteasomal degradation. G-17-induced degradation of PPARgamma appeared to be mediated through phosphorylation of PPARgamma at serine 84 by a process involving the biphasic phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These results were confirmed through the use of EGFR antagonist AG1478 and MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. Furthermore, mutation of PPARgamma at serine 84 reduced the effects of G-17, as evident by inability of G-17 to attenuate PPARgamma promoter activity, degrade PPARgamma, or inhibit the growth suppressing effects of PPARgamma. The results of these studies demonstrate that the trophic properties of gastrin in CRC may be mediated in part by transactivation of the EGFR and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, leading to degradation of PPARgamma protein and a decrease in PPARgamma activation.

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