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Appl Opt. 2006 Mar 10;45(8):1743-55.

Systematic modeling study of channel waveguide fabrication by thermal silver ion exchange.

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Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.


A systematic study of thermal silver ion exchange used for the fabrication of optical channel waveguides is reported in a single-alkali glass. The diffusion equilibrium and diffusion dynamics are experimentally studied, and the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients are determined. The relationship between the fabrication conditions, i.e., time, temperature, and melt concentration, and the induced waveguide refractive index profile is established. It is demonstrated that the diffusion equation can be solved, without use of any free parameters, to predict the refractive index profiles of both planar and channel waveguides. A 1.6 cm diameter integrated optic ring resonator, with a propagation loss of 0.1 dB/cm, is fabricated in a glass by thermal silver ion exchange. The induced refractive index profile is related to the optical characteristics of the functional device.


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