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J Phys Chem A. 2006 Apr 6;110(13):4376-88.

Identification of C5Hx isomers in fuel-rich flames by photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations.

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Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551, USA.


The isomeric composition of C(5)H(x) (x = 2-6, 8) flame species is analyzed for rich flames fueled by allene, propyne, cyclopentene, or benzene. Different isomers are identified by their known ionization energies and/or by comparison of the observed photoionization efficiencies with theoretical simulations based on calculated ionization energies and Franck-Condon factors. The experiments combine flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with photoionization by tunable vacuum-UV synchrotron radiation. The theoretical simulations employ the rovibrational properties obtained with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) density functional theory and electronic energies obtained from QCISD(T) electronic structure calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. For C(5)H(3), the comparison reveals the presence of both the H(2)CCCCCH (i-C(5)H(3)) and the HCCCHCCH (n-C(5)H(3)) isomer. The simulations also suggest a modest amount of cyclo-CCHCHCCH-, which is consistent with a minor signal for C(5)H(2) that is apparently due to cyclo-CCHCCCH-. For C(5)H(4), contributions from the CH(2)CCCCH(2) (1,2,3,4-pentatetraene), CH(2)CCHCCH, and CH(3)CCCCH (1,3-pentadiyne) isomers are evident, as is some contribution from CHCCH(2)CCH (1,4-pentadiyne) in the cyclopentene and benzene flames. Signal at m/z = 65 originates mainly from the cyclopentadienyl radical. For C(5)H(6), contributions from cyclopentadiene, CH(3)CCCHCH(2), CH(3)CHCHCCH, and CH(2)CHCH(2)CCH are observed. No signal is observed for C(5)H(7) species. Cyclopentene, CH(2)CHCHCHCH(3) (1,3-pentadiene), CH(3)CCCH(2)CH(3) (2-pentyne), and CH(2)CHCH(2)CHCH(2) (1,4-pentadiene) contribute to the signal at m/z = 68. Newly derived ionization energies for i- and n-C(5)H(3) (8.20 +/- 0.05 and 8.31 +/- 0.05 eV, respectively), CH(2)CCHCCH (9.22 +/- 0.05 eV), and CH(2)CHCH(2)CCH (9.95 +/- 0.05 eV) are within the error bars of the QCISD(T) calculations. The combustion chemistry of the observed C(5)H(x) intermediates and the impact on flame chemistry models are discussed.


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