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J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 5;54(7):2502-7.

Development of multianalyte flow-through and lateral-flow assays using gold particles and horseradish peroxidase as tracers for the rapid determination of carbaryl and endosulfan in agricultural products.

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Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Faculty of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China.


Membrane-based competitive immunoassays using gold particles and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as tracers in flow-through and lateral-flow formats for multianalysis of carbaryl and endosulfan were developed. For gold-based immunoassay, membrane strips were coated with goat anti-rabbit IgG (control line) and carbaryl hapten-ovalbumin (OVA) and endosulfan hapten-OVA (test lines). The visual detection limits for carbaryl and endosulfan were 100 and 10 microg/L in gold-based assays, respectively. For immunoassay using HRP as tracer, anti-carbaryl and anti-endosulfan antibodies were separately coated on the membrane as test lines, and the visual detection limits were 10 microg/L for carbaryl and 1 microg/L for endosulfan. The developed assays used gold particles and HRP as labels, respectively; 10 times enhancement in the visual detection limit using HRP label was obtained in the study. Matrix interference was eliminated by appropriate dilution of sample extracts with buffer. For the validation of the multianalyte assay, the samples were screened by multianalyte gold-based assay and confirmed by HPLC for carbaryl determination and by GC for endosulfan determination. The results of multianalyte gold-based flow-through assay for the determination of carbaryl and endosulfan were in good agreement with the results of instrumental analysis (HPLC with ultraviolet detection and GC with electron capture detection). The developed multianalyte immunoassays for which the results were interpreted visually can be used as convenient qualitative tools for on-site rapid screening of carbaryl and endosulfan simultaneously in agricultural products.

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