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Chemistry. 2006 Jun 14;12(18):4749-55.

A user-friendly, all-purpose Pd-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) precatalyst for the negishi reaction: a step towards a universal cross-coupling catalyst.

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Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, M3J 1P3, Canada.


We have developed the first user-friendly Negishi protocol capable of routinely cross-coupling all combinations of alkyl and aryl centers. The use of an easily synthesized, air stable, highly active, well-defined precatalyst PEPPSI-IPr (1; PEPPSI=pyridine-enhanced precatalyst preparation, stabilization and initiation; IPr=diisopropylphenylimidazolium derivative) substantially increases the scope, reliability, and ease-of-use of the Negishi reaction. All organohalides and routinely used pseudohalides were excellent coupling partners, with the use of chlorides, bromides, iodides, triflates, tosylates, and mesylates resulting in high yield of the coupled product. Furthermore, all reactions were performed by using general laboratory techniques, with no glove-box necessary as the precatalyst was weighed and stored in air. Utilization of this methodology allowed for the easy synthesis of an assortment of sterically encumbered biaryls and druglike heteroaromatics, demonstrating the value of the PEPPSI-IPr system. Furthermore, this is also the first time Pd-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) methodology has surpassed the related phosphine-ligated Negishi processes both in activity and use.


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