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Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Apr;33(4):228-34.

Commercial sex work and risk of HIV infection among young drug-injecting men who have sex with men in San Francisco.

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Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco,and the Positive Health Program, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, California 94105, USA.



The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex work and HIV infection among young injection drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM-IDU).


This study was a cross-sectional analysis of behavioral and serologic data collected from 227 street-recruited MSM-IDU in San Francisco, California, between January 2000 and November 2001.


Sixty-eight percent of participants reported being paid by another man for sex. HIV prevalence was 12% (95% confidence interval, 8-16%); 42% of seropositive participants were unaware of their infection. HIV was independently associated with higher number of paying male partners and history of gonorrhea and inversely associated with number of female partners, education, and syringe-sharing. Consistent condom use overall was 41%, but varied significantly by type of partner.


Among MSM-IDU in San Francisco, sex work with men is strongly associated with HIV infection and the prevalence of condom use is low. HIV prevention among MSM-IDU must be tailored to address the excess risk associated with sex work.

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