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Nat Rev Cancer. 2006 Apr;6(4):292-306.

Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.

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Department of Pathology, University Health Network and Toronto Medical Laboratories, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2C4.


Thyroid cancer is one of the few malignancies that are increasing in incidence. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its pathogenesis; these include the identification of genetic alterations that activate a common effector pathway involving the RET-Ras-BRAF signalling cascade, and other unique chromosomal rearrangements. Some of these have been associated with radiation exposure as a pathogenetic mechanism. Defects in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of adhesion molecules and cell-cycle control elements seem to affect tumour progression. This information can provide powerful ancillary diagnostic tools and can also be used to identify new therapeutic targets.

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