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Electrophoresis. 2006 Apr;27(8):1641-50.

Biomarker discovery in breast cancer serum using 2-D differential gel electrophoresis/ MALDI-TOF/TOF and data validation by routine clinical assays.

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Biocenter, Division of Cell Biology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.


In the present study, we used 2-D differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and MS to screen biomarker candidates in serum samples obtained from 39 patients with breast cancer and 35 controls. First, we pooled the serum samples matched with age and menopausal status. Then, we depleted the two most abundant proteins albumin and IgG by immunoaffinity chromatography under partly denaturing conditions in order to enrich low-abundance proteins and proteins with low molecular weight. Concentrated and desalted samples were labeled with three different CyDyes including one internal standard, pooled from all the samples, and separated with 2-D DIGE in triplicate experiments. Biological variations of the protein expression level were analyzed with DeCyder software and evaluated for reproducibility and statistical significance. The profile of differentially expressed protein spots between patients and controls revealed proapolipoprotein A-I, transferrin, and hemoglobin as up-regulated and three spots, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III, and haptoglobin alpha2 as down-regulated in patients. Finally, routine clinical immunochemical reactions were used to validate selected candidate biomarkers by quantitative determination of specific proteins in all individual serum samples. The serum level of transferrin correlated well with the 2-D-DIGE results. However, the serum levels of apolipoprotein A-I and haptoglobin could not be detected with the clinical routine diagnostic tests. This demonstrated an advantage 2-D DIGE still has over other techniques. 2-D DIGE can distinguish between isoforms of proteins, where the overall immunochemical quantification does fail due to a lack of isoform-special antibodies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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