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Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):245-52.

The relationship between magnesium, epinephrine and norepinephrine blood concentrations during CABG with normovolemic hemodilution.

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Department of General Chemistry, Feliks Skubiszewski Medical University of Lublin, Poland.


The effects of procedures with extracorporeal circulation on the disturbance of relationships between blood magnesium (Mg), epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels have not been explicitly explained. It is assumed that both hypomagnesemia and increased concentration of the above mentioned hormones exert adverse effects on the myocardium often causing life threatening disorders. This problem is particularly important in cases of stunned myocardium, observed after extracorporeal circulation procedures. The complex nature of the procedures and the intraoperative normovolemic hemodilution (NH) employed are likely to alter Mg, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations, as well as the above mentioned relations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in blood Mg, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation and normovolemic hemodilution. The study encompassed 16 men operated on for stable coronary disease (I or II degrees according to the Canadian Scale). The patients were divided into two groups according to body weight: A) patients weighing less than 75 kg and B) patients weighing more than 75 kg. The degree of NH caused by constant volume of priming (1800 mL) was determined on the basis of hematocrit measurements and in relation to body weight. The examinations were conducted in 5 stages: 1) after radial artery cannulation before anaesthesia and surgery, 2) during hemodilution and deepest hypothermia, 3) after surgery before sending the patient to Intensive Postoperative care Unit, 4) in the first postoperative day, 5) in the second postoperative day. The observations showed an increase in epinephrine levels in group A in the second stage and of norepinephrine levels in stage 4. Decreased blood Mg levels were noted in all the patients in the second stage, however in group A significantly lower values were also observed in stage 3. Moreover, the correlation between Mg level changes and blood epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were observed. The study revealed significant effects of extracorporeal circulation procedures on adrenergic reactions as well as blood magnesium concentrations. It seems that the degree of NH is the main factor determining blood levels of Mg, epinephrine and norepinephrine during the use of a heart-lung apparatus, which may be particularly relevant in patients with impaired heart function and low body weight.

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