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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006 Apr;67(4):541-5.

Correlates and outcomes of retroperitoneal hemorrhage complicating percutaneous coronary intervention.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA.



Retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) is an infrequent but occasionally fatal complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, it has been studied in relatively small numbers of patients.


Prospectively collected data on 28,378 consecutive patients treated between 1992 and 2003 were examined, supplemented by a date-based case control cohort study (76 RPH and 76 non-RPH patients) to examine elements not routinely recorded prospectively. Independent correlates of RPH were determined using logistical regression analysis.


One hundred sixty-three patients (0.57%) developed RPH; of these 73.5% required blood transfusions and 10.4% expired during hospitalization (P < 0.001 for both compared with patients without RPH). RPH was independently associated with femoral artery sheath placement superior to the inferior epigastric artery (P < 0.001), female sex (P < 0.001), use of Angioseal Device (P < 0.001), glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use (P = 0.001), and patient presentation with the acute myocardial infarction (P = 0.035), and was inversely related to patient weight (P = 0.014). Of the 17 patient deaths, 6 were directly related to RPH, 2 of which occurred in association with delays in resuscitation efforts consequent to attempts to obtain diagnostic confirmation with CT imaging.


RPH remains an infrequent but serious complication of PCI. Appropriate management of the femoral access site and the patient once this complication is suspected may minimize adverse outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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