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Ren Fail. 2006;28(2):193-5.

Osmotic nephropathy resulting from maltose-based intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

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Department of Nephrology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.


Intravenous immunoglobulin preparations are being used for an increasing number of indications. To minimize adverse reactions, sugar additives such as sucrose, maltose, and glycine are added to some preparations to serve as stabilizing agents. Intravenous immunoglobulin infusion induces acute renal failure (ARF) via a mechanism of osmotic nephrosis. Most reported cases are related to the use of sucrose-based intravenous immunoglobulin. Herein, we describe a patient with lupus nephritis treated with an immunoglobulin preparation containing maltose who developed ARF with histologic changes characterized by vacuolization and swelling of renal proximal tubular cells. Our case draws nephrologists' attention to the potential of maltose-based immunoglobulin in producing renal failure. Awareness and exercising caution in high-risk groups is elementary to the prevention of this condition.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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