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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006 Apr;9(2):218-28. Epub 2006 Mar 10.

Cyclic di-GMP as a second messenger.

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Karolinska Institutet, Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center (MTC), Box 280, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.


In many bacteria bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) signaling determines the timing and amplitude of complex biological processes from biofilm formation and virulence to photosynthesis. Thereby, the tightly regulated temporal and spatial activity patterns of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively, are currently being resolved. Although details of the mechanisms of c-di-GMP signaling are not yet determined, the recent presentation of PilZ as a candidate c-di-GMP binding-domain opens the field for experimental investigations. Besides its role as an intracellular signaling molecule in bacteria, c-di-GMP also acts as an intercellular signaling molecule between prokaryotes and also has effects in eukaryotes that could provide a perspective in cancer treatment.

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