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J Am Chem Soc. 1996 Jul 31;118(30):7178-89.

Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation of bradykinin and its analogues: energetics, dynamics, and evidence for salt-bridge structures in the gas phase.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) spectra of singly and doubly protonated bradykinin and its analogues are measured in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Rate constants for dissociation are measured as a function of temperature with reaction delays up to 600 s. From these data, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained. The activation parameters and dissociation products for the singly protonated ions are highly sensitive to small changes in ion structure. The Arrhenius activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential (or frequency factor, A) of the singly protonated ions investigated here range from 0.6 to 1.4 eV and 10(5) to 10(12) s(-1), respectively. For bradykinin and its analogues differing by modification of the residues between the two arginine groups on either end of the molecule, the singly and doubly protonated ions have average activation energies of 1.2 and 0.8 eV, respectively, and average A values of 10(8) and 10(12) s(-1), respectively, i.e., the presence of a second charge reduces the activation energy by 0.4 eV and decreases the A value by a factor of 10(4). This demonstrates that the presence of a second charge can dramatically influence the dissociation dynamics of these ions. The doubly protonated methyl ester of bradykinin has an E(a) of 0.82 eV, comparable to the value of 0.84 eV for bradykinin itself. However, this value is 0.21 +/- 0.08 eV greater than that of singly protonated methyl ester of bradykinin, indicating that the Coulomb repulsion is not the most significant factor in the activation energy of this ion. Both singly and doubly protonated Lys-bradykinin ions have higher activation energies than the corresponding bradykinin ions indicating that the addition of a basic residue stabilizes these ions with respect to dissociation. Methylation of the carboxylic acid group of the C-terminus reduces the E(a) of bradykinin from 1.3 to 0.6 eV and the A factor from 1012 to 105 s(-1). This modification also dramatically changes the dissociation products. Similar results are observed for [Ala(6)]-bradykinin and its methyl ester. These results, in combination with others presented here, provide experimental evidence that the most stable form of singly protonated bradykinin is a salt-bridge structure.

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