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World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Feb 7;12(5):678-85.

Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Physiology, 239 Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. jens.h.henriksen@hh.hosp.dk

Abstract

Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin), and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nitric oxide, and other vasodilators, and is most pronounced in the splanchnic area. This constitutes an effective (although relative) counterbalance to increased arterial blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most likely includes the combination of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in parallel.

PMID:
16521178
PMCID:
PMC4066115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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