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J Urol. 2006 Apr;175(4):1268-71; discussion 1271.

Tumor recurrence in the remnant urothelium of females undergoing radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: long-term results from a single center.

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Department of Urology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.



We analyzed the risk factors and incidence of secondary TCC of the remnant urothelium in women following radical cystectomy for TCC of the bladder.


A total of 85 women with a mean age of 64.5 years with clinically localized TCC of the bladder underwent radical cystectomy between 1992 and 2004. Orthotopic bladder substitution was performed in 46 females, while 39 underwent nonorthotopic urinary diversion. Of the entire cohort 22 (26%) patients underwent cystectomy for multifocal or recurrent TCC. Followup examinations were performed at 6-month intervals.


Mean followup in the entire cohort was 49.8 months (median 42). Intraoperative frozen sections obtained from the urethra and distal ureters were negative for TCC and CIS in all patients. Four women (4.7%) had TCC in the remnant urothelium at a mean of 56 months postoperatively. These patients had undergone cystectomy for multifocal or recurrent TCC (4 of 22 or 18%). No secondary TCC was seen in the 63 patients with solitary invasive or nonrecurrent bladder cancer (p <0.05). Urethral recurrence was found in 2 patients (4.3%) 65 and 36 months after orthotopic neobladder surgery, respectively. In the orthotopic group 1 patient (2.1%) had an upper urinary tract tumor 76 months after surgery, while in the nonorthotopic group 1 (2.5%) was found to have an upper urinary tract tumor 48 months postoperatively.


Recurrent or multifocal TCC may represent a risk factor for secondary TCC of the remnant urothelium after cystectomy. In our series all recurrent tumors were late recurrences (more than 36 months postoperatively). Because the rate of urethral recurrence in the current series corresponds to that reported in men (2% to 6%), urethra sparing cystectomy with orthotopic bladder replacement does not appear to compromise the oncological outcome in women.

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