Send to

Choose Destination
Diabetologia. 2006 May;49(5):881-90. Epub 2006 Mar 3.

Progression to type 1 diabetes in islet cell antibody-positive relatives in the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial: the role of additional immune, genetic and metabolic markers of risk.

Author information

Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Science at North Bristol, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, UK.



To examine the role of additional immune, genetic and metabolic risk markers in determining risk of diabetes in islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive individuals with a family history of type 1 diabetes recruited into the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial.


Five hundred and forty-nine first-degree relatives with confirmed ICA levels > or =20 Juvenile Diabetes Foundation units (mean age 15.9 years; interquartile range 10.4-33.7 years) were recruited from 20 countries. OGTTs and IVGTTs were performed at baseline, antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) were determined by RIA, and HLA class II genotyping was performed by PCR of sequence-specific oligonucleotides.


One hundred and fifty-nine participants developed diabetes within 5 years. Univariate analysis showed that the cumulative risk of development of diabetes within 5 years varied according to age, relationship to the proband, positivity for IAA, IA-2A and GADA, number and combination of islet antibodies, HLA class II genotype, baseline glucose tolerance, and first-phase insulin secretion, but not gender or incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in the background population. Children aged < or =10 years had a 59% risk of diabetes within 5 years, compared with 11% in those > or =25 years (p<0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, independent determinants were age, first-phase insulin response, baseline glucose tolerance and number of additional antibody markers, but not antibody type or genotype. Individuals <25 years with two or more additional antibodies at baseline had a 62% risk of diabetes within 5 years and these combined criteria identified 81% of the cases in the whole cohort.


We suggest that screening and recruitment for future intervention trials should be limited to family members aged <25 years, and should be based on islet autoantibodies alone.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center