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J Clin Invest. 2006 Mar;116(3):556-60.

Going nuclear in metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

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Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0651, USA.


Estrogen receptors, PPARs, and liver X receptors are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors that regulate diverse aspects of development and homeostasis. Recent studies of the biologic roles of these receptors and their mechanisms of action have significantly advanced our understanding of transcriptional programs that control lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, immunity and inflammation, and wound repair. These findings provide insights into the therapeutic actions of existing drugs that target nuclear receptors and raise new possibilities for development of safer, more effective drugs for the prevention and treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this introduction to this Review series, underlying mechanisms that enable nuclear receptors to positively and negatively regulate gene expression are presented as background to the focused reviews on estrogen receptors, PPARs, liver X receptors, and the PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family of coactivators.

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