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AIDS. 2006 Jan 9;20(2):F1-7.

Explosion of tuberculin-specific Th1-responses induces immune restoration syndrome in tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To test the hypothesis that an acute exacerbation of mycobacteria-specific Th1 response after HIV infection control by HAART causes immune restoration syndrome (IRS) in HIV-tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients.

DESIGN:

Prospective, multicenter study of 19 consecutive untreated HIV-TB coinfected patients included when initiating antimycobacterial therapy and sequentially evaluated during HAART and at time of IRS. IRS was defined according to classical clinical diagnostic criteria. Patients were declared IRS- if no IRS occurred within 3 months after HAART initiation.

METHODS:

Mycobacteria-specific [purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6, 85B] Th1 cells producing interferon (IFN)-gamma quantified by ELISpot, in vitro production of 25 cytokines/chemokines in antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatants quantified by chemiluminescence.

RESULTS:

Seven patients (37%) experienced IRS (IRS+). Mycobacteria-specific (PPD) Th1 IFN-gamma-producing cells increased sharply during IRS (median, 2970 spot forming cells/10 PBMC), but not the cytomegalovirus-specific responses tested as control. Only three IRS+ patients had low ESAT-6- but no 85B-specific responses. IRS- patients did not develop acute PPD-specific responses except in one case. In addition, at time of IRS a peak of PPD-specific Th1 cytokines/chemokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IFN-gamma, IP10 and monokine-induced by IFN-gamma] without Th2 cytokines, and a peak of non-specific inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-10, RANTES and MCP-1) occurred. These findings were independent from CD4 cell count, viral loads or time of HAART initiation.

CONCLUSION:

An acute exacerbation of Th1 responses against mycobacterial antigens appears to cause IRS in patients co-infected with HIV and TB. This key event provides new evidence valuable for the diagnosis and treatment of IRS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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