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Int J Clin Oncol. 2006 Feb;11(1):28-37.

Early bladder cancer: concept, diagnosis, and management.

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Department of Urology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South 1 West 16, Sapporo, 060-8543, Japan.


Recent evidence on molecular pathways helps us to understand the pathogenesis of bladder cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of recurrence of the disease and progression into muscle-invasive disease are not fully understood. The diagnostic accuracy and specificity of innovative markers for detection of the disease currently available in the clinical setting are still far from the level where cystoscopy would not be needed. Although risk factors for progression to muscle-invasive disease have been identified, we still cannot predict accurately the clinical behavior of superficial bladder cancer. In this review article, we summarize recent evidence on molecular pathogenesis, risk factors for recurrence and progression, urine markers for detection, and treatments in superficial bladder cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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