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J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Mar 8;128(9):2885-92.

Total synthesis and evaluation of [Psi[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin aglycon: reengineering vancomycin for dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac binding.

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Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037. USA.


An effective synthesis of [Psi[CH(2)NH]Tpg(4)]vancomycin aglycon (5) is detailed in which the residue 4 amide carbonyl of vancomycin aglycon has been replaced with a methylene. This removal of a single atom was conducted to enhance binding to D-Ala-D-Lac, countering resistance endowed to bacteria that remodel their D-Ala-D-Ala peptidoglycan cell wall precursor by a similar single atom change (ester O for amide NH). Key elements of the approach include a synthesis of the modified vancomycin ABCD ring system featuring a reductive amination coupling of residues 4 and 5 for installation of the deep-seated amide modification, the first of two diaryl ether closures for formation of the modified CD ring system (76%, 2.5-3:1 kinetic atropodiastereoselectivity), a Suzuki coupling for installation of the hindered AB biaryl bond (90%) on which the atropisomer stereochemistry could be thermally adjusted, and a macrolactamization closure of the AB ring system (70%). Subsequent DE ring system introduction enlisted a room-temperature aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction for formation of the remaining diaryl ether (86%, 6-7:1 kinetic atropodiastereoselectivity), completing the carbon skeleton of 5. Consistent with expectations and relative to the vancomycin aglycon, 5 exhibited a 40-fold increase in affinity for D-Ala-D-Lac (K(a) = 5.2 x 10(3) M(-1)) and a 35-fold reduction in affinity for D-Ala-D-Ala (K(a) = 4.8 x 10(3) M(-1)), providing a glycopeptide analogue with balanced, dual binding characteristics. Beautifully, 5 exhibited antimicrobial activity (MIC = 31 microg/mL) against a VanA-resistant organism that remodels its D-Ala-D-Ala cell wall precursor to d-Ala-d-Lac upon glycopeptide antibiotic challenge, displaying a potency that reflects these binding characteristics.

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