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J Neurotrauma. 2006 Feb;23(2):140-8.

Traumatic brain injury outcomes in pre- and post- menopausal females versus age-matched males.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, UC San Diego, San Diego, California 92103-8676, USA.


Gender differences in outcomes from major trauma have been described previously, and exogenous female hormone administration appears to be neuroprotective following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This analysis explored outcomes in pre- and post-menopausal females versus age-matched males. A total of 13,437 patients (n = 3,178 females, n = 10,259 males) with moderate-to-severe TBI (head AIS > or = 3) were identified from our county trauma registry. Overall mortality was similar between males and females (22% for both). Logistic regression was used to compare gender outcome differences, with a separate analysis performed for premenopausal (< 50 years) versus postmenopausal (> or = 50 years) patients, and after stratification by decade of life. No statistically significant difference in outcomes was observed for pre-menopausal females versus males (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83, 1.35; p = 0.633), but outcomes were significantly better in postmenopausal females versus males (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.81, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hypotension (SBP < or = 90 mm Hg), head Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS), and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Stratification by decade of life revealed the gender survival differential inflection point to occur between ages 40-49 (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.66-1.71, p = 0.798) and ages 50-59 (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.74, p = 0.005). In addition, Revised Trauma Score and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) was used to calculate probability of survival (PS); all patients were then stratified by decade of life, and males and females were compared with regard to mean survival differential (outcome - PS). The identical pattern of improved outcomes in post-menopausal but not pre-menopausal females versus age-matched males was observed. These data suggest that endogenous female sex hormone production is not neuroprotective.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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