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Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;35(1):127-32. Epub 2006 Feb 23.

Phosphorylation of adaptor protein-2 mu2 is essential for Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis in response to either G protein-coupled receptor or reactive oxygen species.

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Department of Medicine, Membrane Signaling Networks, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.


Activation of G protein-coupled receptor by dopamine and hypoxia-generated reactive oxygen species promote Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis. This effect is clathrin dependent and involves the activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta and phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit. Because the incorporation of cargo into clathrin vesicles requires association with adaptor proteins, we studied whether phosphorylation of adaptor protein (AP)-2 plays a role in its binding to the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit and thereby in its endocytosis. Dopamine induces a time-dependent phosphorylation of the AP-2 mu2 subunit. Using specific inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants, we establish that this effect was mediated by activation of the adaptor associated kinase 1/PKC-zeta isoform. Expression of the AP-2 mu2 bearing a mutation in its phosphorylation site (T156A) prevented Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis and changes in activity induced by dopamine. Similarly, in lung alveolar epithelial cells, hypoxia-induced endocytosis of Na+,K+-ATPase requires the binding of AP-2 to the tyrosine-based motif (Tyr-537) located in the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit, and this effect requires phosphorylation of the AP-2 mu2 subunit. We conclude that phosphorylation of AP-2 mu2 subunit is essential for Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis in response to a variety of signals, such as dopamine or reactive oxygen species.

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