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FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Mar;6(2):230-48.

Early transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress imposed by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

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Biological Sciences Research Group, Centro de Engenharia Biológica e Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal.


The global gene transcription pattern of the eukaryotic experimental model Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to sudden aggression with the widely used herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was analysed. Under acute stress, 14% of the yeast transcripts suffered a greater than twofold change. The yeastract database was used to predict the transcription factors mediating the response registered in this microarray analysis. Most of the up-regulated genes in response to 2,4-D are known targets of Msn2p, Msn4p, Yap1p, Pdr1p, Pdr3p, Stp1p, Stp2p and Rpn4p. The major regulator of ribosomal protein genes, Sfp1p, is known to control 60% of the down-regulated genes, in particular many involved in the transcriptional and translational machinery and in cell division. The yeast response to the herbicide includes the increased expression of genes involved in the oxidative stress response, the recovery or degradation of damaged proteins, cell wall remodelling and multiple drug resistance. Although the protective role of TPO1 and PDR5 genes was confirmed, the majority of the responsive genes encoding multidrug resistance do not confer resistance to 2,4-D. The increased expression of genes involved in alternative carbon and nitrogen source metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation and autophagy was also registered, suggesting that acute herbicide stress leads to nutrient limitation.

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