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FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Mar;256(1):1-15.

Protein cell surface display in Gram-positive bacteria: from single protein to macromolecular protein structure.

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Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherche Clermont-Ferrand - Theix - Lyon, Unité de Microbiologie, Equipe Qualité et Sécurité des Aliments, Site de Theix, Saint-Genès Champanelle, France.


In the course of evolution, Gram-positive bacteria, defined here as prokaryotes from the domain Bacteria with a cell envelope composed of one biological membrane (monodermita) and a cell wall composed at least of peptidoglycan and covalently linked teichoic acids, have developed several mechanisms permitting to a cytoplasmic synthesized protein to be present on the bacterial cell surface. Four major types of cell surface displayed proteins are currently recognized: (i) transmembrane proteins, (ii) lipoproteins, (iii) LPXTG-like proteins and (iv) cell wall binding proteins. The subset of proteins exposed on the bacterial cell surface, and thus interacting with extracellular milieu, constitutes the surfaceome. Here, we review exhaustively the current molecular mechanisms involved in protein attachment within the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria, from single protein to macromolecular protein structure.

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