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Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar;27(3):325-30.

Fetal cardiac calcifications: report of four prenatally diagnosed cases and review of the literature.

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The Prenatal Diagnosis and Medical Genetics Program, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Fetal cardiac calcifications are defined as diffuse hyperechogenicities in the different layers of the heart. This is an uncommon fetal ultrasound finding associated with significant myocardial dysfunction. We report four cases with massive fetal myocardial calcifications detected on prenatal ultrasound at 18-22 weeks' gestation and associated, in all cases, with significant cardiac dysfunction. Detailed fetal echocardiographic evaluation, chromosome analysis, and an extensive search for intrauterine infection as a cause of these abnormalities, were carried out on all cases. A thorough autopsy was performed on all deceased fetuses and postnatal investigation of the sole survivor was performed. Two of our patients chose to interrupt their pregnancies, one fetus suffered intrauterine demise, and one child was born alive. In all of our cases the karyotypes were normal, and no specific infectious etiology or maternal autoantibody was noted. Histopathology findings in the non-survivors included myo- and epicardial calcification maximal at the base of the heart. The living child has findings suggestive of an intrauterine infection, although no infectious entity was identified. Long-term follow-up showed sensorineural hearing loss and severe developmental delay.

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