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Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex: an update.

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Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.


Along with continuing progress in reconstructive surgery of the breast numerous techniques of nipple-areola reconstruction have been developed. With time and experience some methods have been discredited to historical significance only while others have evolved to widely accepted concepts used by surgeons all over the world, which in turn contributed new ideas and modifications. In addition to those favourite techniques others are reserved as second-line alternatives in specific situations. The principle criterion for a pleasing nipple-areola complex is symmetry regarding several parameters: colour, texture, size, and projection. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and discuss the concepts and techniques of nipple-areola reconstruction that have evolved over the past decades. Furthermore, those principles and techniques are pointed out that fulfil best the criteria of an ideal nipple-areola complex with emphasis on different techniques of breast reconstruction and individual conditions of the patient.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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