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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;60(8):949-54. Epub 2006 Feb 15.

Glucose and insulin responses in healthy women after intake of composite meals containing cod-, milk-, and soy protein.

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Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Unit for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.



To evaluate the metabolic effect of three different kinds of dietary proteins as part of composite meals with similar macronutrient composition in healthy subjects.


A randomised meal study.


Metabolic ward.


In total, 17 healthy women, 30-65 years old, consumed three meals in randomised order. The meals consisted of foodstuffs with similar nutrient composition but different types of protein (cod, cottage cheese, or soy protein isolate). The distribution of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 33, 26, and 41 energy percent, respectively. Total amount of energy was 2300 kJ. Blood samples were drawn for assay of B-glucose, S-insulin, S-free fatty acids, S-triglycerides, and C-peptide in the fasting state and at seven times (20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min) after starting to eat the test meal.


The blood glucose response after the cod protein meal differed from that of the soy protein meal, with a larger area under the curve (AUC) calculated up to 120 min. The serum insulin response after the milk protein meal differed from that of the cod protein meal with a larger AUC calculated up to 240 min. The insulin/C-peptide and the insulin/glucose ratios differed between the meals; the insulin/C-peptide ratio was higher after the milk protein meal compared to the cod, and soy protein meal at 120 min. The insulin/glucose ratio was lower after the cod protein meal compared to the milk, and soy protein meals at 120 min. The results showed that the metabolic responses differed after meals with similar macronutrient composition containing cod-, milk-, or soy protein.

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