Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2006 Feb;5(1):16-21.

Local injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Author information

Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China.



Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world and ranks the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Surgical resection, liver transplantation and percutaneous ablation are generally considered the only curative treatment for early stage HCC. Besides the limitations of insufficient organ donors and a long waiting time for liver transplantation, however, resection is applied only to patients with good hepatic reserve and localized tumors, with a resectability of 30%.


Local ablation therapy, which is minimally invasive but contributes to the significant improvement of survival in patients with unresectable tumor, has been widely used in treating small HCC. Among the techniques of local therapy, percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) with a complete response in 80% of HCCs less than 3 cm has been accepted as an alternative to surgery in patients with small HCC. Moreover, percutaneous hepatic quantified ethanol injection (PHQEI) or PEI according to the standard criteria has been confirmed to benefit patients with HCC, especially when quantified ethanol is given at a short interval (QESI, the interval was 2-3 days).


Several limitations related to local percutaneous methods may result in incomplete therapeutic effect in case of larger HCC nodules (>3 cm).


The combined use of different methods according to the clinical status of patients or tumors may be essential to the effective treatment of HCC.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
    Loading ...
    Support Center