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Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Mar;26(5):1644-53.

Gadd34 requirement for normal hemoglobin synthesis.

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Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


The protein encoded by growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible transcript 34 (Gadd34) is associated with translation initiation regulation following certain stress responses. Through interaction with the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c), Gadd34 recruits PP1c for the removal of an inhibitory phosphate group on the alpha subunit of elongation initiation factor 2, thereby reversing the shutoff of protein synthesis initiated by stress-inducible kinases. In the absence of stress, the physiologic consequences of Gadd34 function are not known. Initial analysis of Gadd34-null mice revealed several significant findings, including hypersplenism, decreased erythrocyte volume, increased numbers of circulating erythrocytes, and decreased hemoglobin content, resembling some thalassemia syndromes. Biochemical analysis of the hemoglobin-producing reticulocyte (an erythrocyte precursor) revealed that the decreased hemoglobin content in the Gadd34-null erythrocyte is due to the reduced initiation of the globin translation machinery. We propose that an equilibrium state exists between Gadd34/PP1c and the opposing heme-regulated inhibitor kinase during hemoglobin synthesis in the reticulocyte.

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