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J Anim Sci. 2006 Mar;84(3):720-32.

Evaluation of the effects of dietary fat, conjugated linoleic acid, and ractopamine on growth performance, pork quality, and fatty acid profiles in genetically lean gilts.

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Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.


An 8-wk study of the effects of CLA, rendered animal fats, and ractopamine, and their interactive effects on growth, fatty acid composition, and carcass quality of genetically lean pigs was conducted. Gilts (n = 228; initial BW of 59.1 kg) were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement consisting of CLA, ractopamine, and fat treatments. The CLA treatment consisted of 1% CLA oil (CLA-60) or 1% soybean oil. Ractopamine levels were either 0 or 10 ppm. Fat treatments consisted of 0% added fat, 5% choice white grease (CWG), or 5% beef tallow (BT). The CLA and fat treatments were initiated at 59.1 kg of BW, 4 wk before the ractopamine treatments. The ractopamine treatments were imposed when the gilts reached a BW of 85.7 kg and lasted for the duration of the final 4 wk until carcass data were collected. Lipids from the belly, outer and inner layers of backfat, and LM were extracted and analyzed for fatty acid composition from 6 pigs per treatment at wk 4 and 8. Feeding CLA increased (P < 0.02) G:F during the final 4 wk. Pigs fed added fat as either CWG or BT exhibited decreased (P < 0.05) ADFI and increased (P < 0.01) G:F. Adding ractopamine to the diet increased (P < 0.01) ADG, G:F, and final BW. The predicted carcass lean percentage was increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed CLA or ractopamine. Feeding either 5% fat or ractopamine increased (P < 0.05) carcass weight. Adding fat to the diets increased (P < 0.05) the 10th rib backfat depth but did not affect predicted percent lean. Bellies of gilts fed CLA were subjectively and objectively firmer (P < 0.01). Dietary CLA increased (P < 0.01) the concentration of saturated fatty acids and decreased (P < 0.01) the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids of the belly fat, both layers of backfat, and LM. Ractopamine decreased (P < 0.01) the i.m. fat content of the LM but had relatively little effect on the fatty acid profiles of the tissues compared with CLA. These results indicate that CLA, added fat, and ractopamine work mainly in an additive fashion to enhance pig growth and carcass quality. Furthermore, these results indicate that CLA results in more saturated fat throughout the carcass.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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