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Muscle Nerve. 2006 Jun;33(6):715-31.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum: the dynamic calcium governor of muscle.

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Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.


The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) provides feedback control required to balance the processes of calcium storage, release, and reuptake in skeletal muscle. This balance is achieved through the concerted action of three major classes of SR calcium-regulatory proteins: (1) luminal calcium-binding proteins (calsequestrin, histidine-rich calcium-binding protein, junctate, and sarcalumenin) for calcium storage; (2) SR calcium release channels (type 1 ryanodine receptor or RyR1 and IP3 receptors) for calcium release; and (3) sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps for calcium reuptake. Proper calcium storage, release, and reuptake are essential for normal skeletal muscle function. We review SR structure and function during normal skeletal muscle activity, the proteins that orchestrate calcium storage, release, and reuptake, and how phenotypically distinct muscle diseases (e.g., malignant hyperthermia, central core disease, and Brody disease) can result from subtle alterations in the activity of several key components of the SR calcium-regulatory machinery.

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