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Genet Mol Res. 2005 Dec 30;4(4):742-8.

Multiple Mantel tests and isolation-by-distance, taking into account long-term historical divergence.

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Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Católica de Goiás (UCG), Goiânia, GO, Brasil.


Mantel tests of matrix correspondence have been widely used in population genetics to examine microevolutionary processes, such as isolation-by-distance (IBD). We used partial and multiple Mantel tests to simultaneously test long-term historical effects and current divergence and equilibrium processes, such as IBD. We used these procedures to calculate genetic divergence among Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) populations in Central Brazil. The Nei's genetic distances between pairs of local populations were strongly correlated with geographic distances, suggesting an IBD process, but field observations and the geographic distribution of the samples suggest that populations may have been subjected to more complex evolutionary processes of genetic divergence. Partial Mantel regression was used to partition the effects of geographic structure and long-term divergence associated with a possible historical barrier. The R(2) of the model with both effects was 73.3%, and after the partition 21.9% of the variation in the genetic distances could be attributed to long-term historical divergence alone, whereas only 1.5% of the variation in genetic distances could be attributed to IBD. As expected, there was a large overlap between these processes when explaining genetic divergence, so it was not possible to entirely partition divergence between historical and contemporary processes.

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