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Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006 May;7(3):212-9.

Emergent use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during pediatric cardiac catheterization.

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1
Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to resuscitate patients following critical cardiac events in the catheterization laboratory.

DESIGN:

Retrospective review of medical records.

SETTING:

Cardiac intensive care unit and cardiac catheterization laboratory at a tertiary care children's hospital.

PATIENTS:

Pediatric patients cannulated emergently for ECMO in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (n = 22).

INTERVENTIONS:

ECMO was initiated emergently in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for progressive hemodynamic deterioration due to low cardiac output syndrome or catheter-induced complications.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Twenty-two patients were cannulated for ECMO in the catheterization laboratory between 1996 and 2004. Median age was 33 months (range 0-192), median weight 14.8 kg (2.4-75), and median duration of ECMO 84 hrs (2-343). Indications included catheter-induced complication (n = 14), severe low cardiac output syndrome (n = 7), and hypoxemia (n = 1). Three patients (14%) were cannulated in the catheterization laboratory before catheterization for low cardiac output or hypoxemia. During cannulation, 19 patients (86%) were receiving chest compressions; median duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 29 mins (20-57). Eighteen patients (82%) survived to discharge (five of whom underwent cardiac transplantation) and four (18%) died. Of 19 patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation during cannulation, 15 (79%) survived to discharge and nine (47%) sustained neurologic injury. There was no significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors in age, weight, duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation or ECMO support, pH, or lactate levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

ECMO is a technically feasible and highly successful tool in the resuscitation of pediatric patients following critical events in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

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