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Neural tube development requires the cooperation of p53- and Gadd45a-associated pathways.

Author information

1
National Institutes of Health-George Washington University Graduate Partnerships Program in Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Numerous genetically engineered mouse models for neural tube defects (NTDs) exist, and some of the implicated proteins are functionally related. For example, the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein Gadd45a and tumor suppressor p53 are functionally similar, and both are involved in neural tube development (Gadd45a- and Trp53-null embryos show low levels of exencephaly). To assess their roles in neural tube development, we generated double-null mice from Gadd45a- and Trp53-null mice, as well as from cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (Cdkn1a) (p21)-null and xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC)-null mice that do not show spontaneous exencephaly.

METHODS:

Gadd45a-, Trp53-, Cdkn1a-, and XPC-null mice were crossed to generate several double-null mouse models. Embryos (embryonic day [ED] 16-18) from the single- and double-null crosses were scored for NTDs.

RESULTS:

Deletion of both Gadd45a and Trp53 in mice increased exencephaly frequencies compared to the deletion of either single gene (34.0% in Gadd45a/Trp53-null compared to 8.4% and 9.1% in the Gadd45a- and Trp53-null embryos, respectively). Furthermore, although deletion of another p53-regulated gene, Cdkn1a, is not associated with exencephaly, in conjunction with Gadd45a deletion, the exencephaly frequencies are increased (30.5% in the Gadd45a/Cdkn1a-null embryos) and are similar to those in the Gadd45a/Trp53-null embryos. Although XPC deletion increased exencephaly frequencies in Trp53-null embryos, XPC deletion did not increase the exencephaly frequencies in Gadd45a-null embryos.

CONCLUSIONS:

The increased genetic liability to exencephaly in the Gadd45a/Trp53- and Gadd45a/Cdkn1a-null embryos may be related to the disruption of multiple cellular pathways associated with Gadd45a and p53.

PMID:
16470852
DOI:
10.1002/bdra.20217
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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