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Virology. 1991 Jul;183(1):195-205.

Mapping specific functions in the capsid structure of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus using infectious plasmid clones.

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James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853.


DNA sequences between 0 and 98.8 genome map units (m.u.) from canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) were cloned into plasmid vectors to form infectious molecular clones. Those plasmids were transfected into permissive cells and viruses recovered were shown to contain intact genomes, having regenerated the complete viral 5' ends up to 100 m.u. The viruses derived from the plasmids were compared to the original viruses, and shown to be indistinguishable in antigenic type, hemagglutination (HA) type and host range. The plasmid origin of the viruses was shown by preparing recombinant clones between CPV and FPV, and demonstrating the recombinant nature of the resulting viruses by restriction mapping and by sequencing viral DNA across the recombination sites. The sequences of our wild-type isolates CPV-d and FPV-b were completed, revealing 50 nucleotide sequence differences, of which 16 determined coding changes--5 in NS-1,2 in NS-2, and 9 in VP-2 protein. The sequences of the 5' ends (95.3-100 m.u.) of both viruses were also determined. Analysis of recombinant viruses mapped both CPV- and FPV-specific antigenic epitopes, the pH dependence of HA, and sequences affecting canine host range of the viruses within the VP-1 and VP-2 structural protein genes. Most of the specific changes were shown to be either on, or within one amino acid of, the surface of the virus capsid, indicating that the exposed surface of the parvovirus capsid plays an important role in determining a number of virus functions. The specific epitopes were affected by differences in a raised area on the capsid ("threefold spike"), while the pH dependence of HA difference was adjacent to a depression in the surface of the capsid at the twofold axis of symmetry.

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