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Prog Neurobiol. 2006 Feb;78(2):61-90. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

The common organization of the amygdaloid complex in tetrapods: new concepts based on developmental, hodological and neurochemical data in anuran amphibians.

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  • 1Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.


Research over the last few years has demonstrated that the amygdaloid complex in amniotes shares basic developmental, hodological and neurochemical features. Furthermore, homolog territories of all main amygdaloid subdivisions have been recognized among amniotes, primarily highlighted by the common expression patterns for numerous developmental genes. With the achievement of new technical approaches, the study of the precise neuroanatomy of the telencephalon of the anuran amphibians has been possible, revealing that most of the structures present in amniotes are recognizable in these anamniotes. Thus, recent investigations have yielded enough results to support the notion that the organization of the anuran amygdaloid complex includes subdivisions with origin in ventral pallial and subpallial territories, a strong relationship with the vomeronasal and olfactory systems, abundant intra-amygdaloid connections, a main output center involved in the autonomic system, profuse amygdaloid fiber systems, and distinct chemoarchitecture. When all these new data about the development, connectivity and neurochemistry of the amygdaloid complex in anurans are taken into account, it becomes patent that a basic organization pattern is shared by both amniotic and anamniotic tetrapods.

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