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J Trauma. 2006 Jan;60(1):134-46.

Does the rate of rewarming from profound hypothermic arrest influence the outcome in a swine model of lethal hemorrhage?

Author information

1
Trauma Research and Readiness Institute for Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA. hbalam@partners.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Rapid induction of profound hypothermic arrest (suspended animation) can provide valuable time for the repair of complex injuries and improve survival. The optimal rate for re-warming from a state of profound hypothermia is unknown. This experiment was designed to test the impact of different warming rates on outcome in a swine model of lethal hemorrhage from complex vascular injuries.

METHODS:

Uncontrolled lethal hemorrhage was induced in 40 swine (80-120 lbs) by creating an iliac artery and vein injury, followed 30 minutes later (simulating transport time) by laceration of the descending thoracic aorta. Through a thoracotomy approach, a catheter was placed in the aorta and hyperkalemic organ preservation solution was infused on cardiopulmonary bypass to rapidly (2 degrees C/min) induce profound (10 degrees C) hypothermia. Vascular injuries were repaired during 60 minutes of hypothermic arrest. The 4 groups (n = 10/group) included normothermic controls (NC) where core temperature was maintained between 36 to 37 degrees C, and re-warming from profound hypothermia at rates of: 0.25 degrees C/min (slow), 0.5 degrees C/min (medium), or 1 degrees C/min (fast). Hyperkalemia was reversed during the hypothermic arrest period, and blood was infused for resuscitation during re-warming. After discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, the animals were recovered and monitored for 6 weeks for neurologic deficits, cognitive function (learning new skills), and organ dysfunction. Detailed examination of brains was performed at 6 weeks.

RESULTS:

All the normothermic animals died, whereas survival rates for slow, medium and fast re-warming from hypothermic arrest were 50, 90, and 30%, respectively (p < 0.05 slow and medium warming versus normothermic control, p < 0.05 medium versus fast re-warming). All the surviving animals were neurologically intact, displayed normal learning capacity, and had no long-term organ dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Rapid induction of hypothermic arrest maintains viability of brain during repair of lethal vascular injuries. Long-term survival is influenced by the rate of reversal of hypothermia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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