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J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15;176(4):2522-8.

Proinflammatory cytokine production in liver regeneration is Myd88-dependent, but independent of Cd14, Tlr2, and Tlr4.

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Department of Pathology, University of Washington, 98195, USA.


TNF and IL-6 are considered to be important to the initiation or priming phase of liver regeneration. However, the signaling pathways that lead to the production of these cytokines after partial hepatectomy (PH) have not been identified. Enteric-derived LPS appears to be important to liver regeneration, possibly by stimulating proinflammatory cytokine production after surgery. To determine whether LPS signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 during the priming phase of liver regeneration, we performed PH on mice lacking the TLRs Tlr4 and Tlr2, the LPS coreceptor, Cd14, and Myd88, an adapter protein involved in most TLR and IL-1R pathways. In MyD88 knockout (KO) mice after PH, both liver Tnf mRNA and circulating IL-6 levels were severely depressed compared with heterozygous or wild-type mice. Activation of STAT-3 and three STAT-3 responsive genes, Socs3, Cd14, and serum amyloid A2 were also blocked. In contrast, Tlr4, Tlr2, and Cd14 KO mice showed no deficits in the production of IL-6. Surprisingly, none of these KO mice showed any delay in hepatocyte replication. These data indicate that the LPS receptor TLR4, as well as TLR2 and CD14, do not play roles in regulating cytokine production or DNA replication after PH. In contrast, MyD88-dependent pathways appear to be responsible for TNF, IL-6, and their downstream signaling pathways.

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