Send to

Choose Destination
Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Feb;54(2):473-81.

CD28-dependent differentiation into the effector/memory phenotype is essential for induction of arthritis in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice.

Author information

Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan.



Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)-deficient mice on a BALB/c background spontaneously develop a chronic inflammatory polyarthropathy closely resembling that of rheumatoid arthritis in humans. To elucidate the role of CD28 costimulatory signals in the development of this disease, we studied IL-1Ra/CD28-double-deficient mice.


We crossed IL-1Ra-deficient mice with CD28-deficient mice and observed the incidence and severity of arthritis. To investigate functions of IL-1Ra/CD28-double-deficient T cells, cells were stimulated with CD3 monoclonal antibody or allogeneic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and their proliferative responses and levels of cytokine production were measured.


Disease severity was lower in IL-1Ra/CD28-double-deficient mice than in mice that were deficient only in IL-1Ra, although incidence of arthritis was not affected by the presence or absence of CD28. When pathogenic IL-1Ra-KO T cells were transferred into nude mice, severe arthritis developed. Even though T cells from double-deficient mice showed the same diminished proliferative capacity as was seen in T cells from CD28-single-deficient animals, nude mice into which double-deficient T cells were transferred never developed arthritis.


These findings indicate that IL-1Ra/CD28-double-deficient T cells can be activated by IL-1Ra-deficient activated APCs, resulting in induction of arthritis; however, these T cells did not induce the disease under normal conditions, because they did not differentiate into effector/memory phenotype.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center