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J Biochem. 2006 Feb;139(2):245-53.

The internalization and metabolism of 3-deoxyglucosone in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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Department of Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, B1, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG), a dicarbonyl compound produced by glycation, plays a role in the modification and cross-linking of long-lived proteins. We synthesized [3H]3-DG from [3H]glucose and developed an internalization assay system using HPLC to examine its cellular metabolism. When smooth muscle cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with [3H]3-DG, it was found that [3H]3-DG was internalized by cells in a time dependent manner. The rate of internalization was reduced when the cells were incubated at 4 degrees C or treated with phenylarsine oxide (PAO). By monitoring [3H]3-DG taken up by cells, it was confirmed that 3-DG is reduced to 3-deoxyfructose (3-DF) and that this reaction was inhibited by an aldo-keto reductase inhibitor (ARI). The presence of 3-DG led to an increase in reactive oxygen species levels in the cells and subsequent apoptosis, and the effect was enhanced by pretreatment with ARI. These results suggest that 3-DG is internalized by cells and reduced to 3-DF by aldo-keto reductases, and that the internalized 3-DG is responsible for the production of intracellular oxidative stress.

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