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Circulation. 2006 Jan 31;113(4):517-24.

Pregnancy outcomes in women with congenital heart disease.

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1
Boston Adult Congenital Heart Service, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. paul.khairy@cardio.CHBoston.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pregnant women with congenital heart disease are at increased risk for cardiac and neonatal complications, yet risk factors for adverse outcomes are not fully defined.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Between January 1998 and September 2004, 90 pregnancies at age 27.7+/-6.1 years were followed in 53 women with congenital heart disease. Spontaneous abortions occurred in 11 pregnancies at 10.8+/-3.7 weeks, and 7 underwent elective pregnancy termination. There were no maternal deaths. Primary maternal cardiac events complicated 19.4% of ongoing pregnancies, with pulmonary edema in 16.7% and sustained arrhythmias in 2.8%. Univariate risk factors included prior history of heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 15.5), NYHA functional class > or =2 (OR, 5.4), and decreased subpulmonary ventricular ejection fraction (OR, 7.7). Independent predictors were decreased subpulmonary ventricular ejection fraction and/or severe pulmonary regurgitation (OR, 9.0) and smoking history (OR, 27.2). Adverse neonatal outcomes occurred in 27.8% of ongoing pregnancies and included preterm delivery (20.8%), small for gestational age (8.3%), respiratory distress syndrome (8.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (1.4%), intrauterine fetal demise (2.8%), and neonatal death (1.4%). A subaortic ventricular outflow tract gradient >30 mm Hg independently predicted an adverse neonatal outcome (OR, 7.5). Cardiac risk assessment was improved by including decreased subpulmonary ventricular systolic function and/or severe pulmonary regurgitation (OR, 10.3) in a previously proposed risk index developed in pregnant women with acquired and congenital heart disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

Maternal cardiac and neonatal complication rates are considerable in pregnant women with congenital heart disease. Patients with impaired subpulmonary ventricular systolic function and/or severe pulmonary regurgitation are at increased risk for adverse cardiac outcomes.

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