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Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006 Jan;129(1):48-53.

Self-corrective T-loop design for differential space closure.

Author information

  • 1Department of Oral Facial Development, Orthodontics Section, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. [corrected]

Erratum in

  • Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006 Apr;129(4):457.



The current approach to measuring T-loop force systems in patients requiring differential anchorage does not consider active unit angulations and steps during space closure. The angulations and steps during movement introduced by rotation can considerably modify the force system acting on the teeth.


In this study, geometric modifications were determined during controlled tipping of the 6 anterior teeth, where there was no movement of the posterior teeth, thus configuring a type A anchorage situation.


An optimal beta-titanium alloy 0.017 x 0.025-in T-loop spring was designed by using a simulation performed with LOOP software (dHAL Orthodontic Software, Athens, Greece) to allow compensation for anterior unit-position effect on the final force system. The force systems produced by this T-loop spring with and without geometric correction of the brackets have significant differences that should be considered in the segmented arch approach to space closure.


The effects of steps, angles, and vertical forces were combined to produce an ideal T-loop design that would provide a more determinate force system. The effects and force systems are estimates based on simplified locations of the centers of resistance, assuming relatively constant behavior of the centers of rotation. These simplifications might differ slightly from what happens in vivo. The finite element method or an accurate spring tester capable of reproducing the geometric corrections should be used to ensure a precise force system.

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