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J Biomed Inform. 2006 Dec;39(6):656-67. Epub 2006 Jan 9.

A taxonomic description of computer-based clinical decision support systems.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.



Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) vary greatly in design and function. Using a taxonomy that we had previously developed, we describe the characteristics of CDSSs reported in the literature.


We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between 1998 and 2003 that evaluated CDSSs. We coded each CDSS using our taxonomy.


58 studies met our inclusion criteria. The 74 reported CDSSs varied greatly in context of use, knowledge and data sources, nature of decision support offered, information delivery, and workflow impact. Two distinct subsets of CDSSs were seen: patient-directed systems that provided decision support for preventive care or health-related behaviors via mail or phone (38% of systems), and inpatient systems targeting clinicians with online decision support and direct online execution of the recommendations (18%). 84% of the CDSSs required extra staffing for handling CDSS-related input or output.


Reported CDSSs are heterogeneous along many dimensions. Caution should be taken in generalizing the results of CDSS RCTs to different clinical or workflow settings.

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