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Urology. 2006 Feb;67(2):288-93. Epub 2006 Jan 26.

Racial disparities in resource utilization for cystectomy.

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Department of Urology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0330, USA.



To examine the association of race with mortality and resource use among patients requiring cystectomy for bladder cancer, given the known racial differences with regard to bladder cancer incidence and survival.


Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (a nationally representative data set), 22,088 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer from 1988 to 2000 were identified using the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, codes. The outcomes included in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and discharge status. Multivariable models were developed to perform risk-adjusted analyses and identify factors associated with these outcomes.


The overall mortality rate after cystectomy was 2.9%. Unadjusted analyses revealed significant racial differences with respect to in-hospital mortality, LOS, and discharge disposition. Whites had a mortality rate of 2.8% compared with 4.2% for blacks and 3.9% for Hispanics (P = 0.006). Whites had a prolonged LOS 24.9% of the time compared with 38.2% for blacks and 24.6% for Hispanics (P < 0.001). The rate at which whites were discharged to subacute care facilities was 9.9% compared with 11.2% for black patients and 7.7% for Hispanics (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, blacks were more likely to experience in-hospital mortality and prolonged LOS (odds ratios 1.66 and 2.10, respectively) compared with whites, although no significant differences were observed for Hispanics. No significant racial differences were noted for discharge status after risk adjustment.


Black patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer had greater mortality and greater LOS than did white patients. Additional study using detailed clinical data is necessary to identify the underlying causes of these differences.

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