Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Bioessays. 2006 Feb;28(2):157-68.


Author information

  • 1Fachbereich Biowissenschaften der J.W. Goethe-Universit├Ąt Frankfurt am Main, Germany.


The vector of the geomagnetic field provides animals with directional information, while intensity and/or inclination provide them with positional information. For magnetoreception, two hypotheses are currently discussed: one proposing magnetite-based mechanisms, the other suggesting radical pair processes involving photopigments. Behavioral studies indicate that birds use both mechanisms: they responded to a short, strong magnetic pulse designed to change the magnetization of magnetite particles, while, at the same time, their orientation was found to be light-dependent and could be disrupted by high-frequency magnetic fields in the MHz range, which is diagnostic for radical pair processes. Details of these findings, together with electrophysiological and histological studies, suggest that, in birds, a radical pair mechanism located in the right eye provides directional information for a compass, while a magnetite-based mechanism located in the upper beak records magnetic intensity, thus providing positional information. The mechanisms of magnetoreception in other animals have not yet been analyzed in detail.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center