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Am J Surg Pathol. 2006 Feb;30(2):258-61.

Pneumopolycystic endometritis.

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  • 1Department of Anatomic Pathology, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, Medical Faculty, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.


Emphysematous inflammations of the abdomen and pelvis are uncommon and potentially life-threatening conditions that require aggressive treatment. Pneumopolycystic endometritis is a rare benign condition of which only 1 case has been described. This report describes the sonographic and histologic appearance of pneumopolycystic endometritis in a 49-year-old woman who presented with irregular menses and hypermenorrhea of 1 year's duration. The entity is characterized by gas-filled cysts in the endometrium stroma, in a pattern similar to pneumatosis of the vagina. The histologic picture is specific and should not be confused with gas gangrene involving the uterus characterized by the presence of tissue necrosis and life-threatening infection. Our patient is the first documented case that occurred spontaneously and at the same time was limited to the endometrium. Recognition of pneumopolycystic endometritis is important because this condition does not represent an aggressive life-threatening infection, and spontaneous resolution is to be expected.

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