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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;290(6):E1245-52. Epub 2006 Jan 24.

Increase in S6K1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise occurs mainly in type II muscle fibers.

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Dept. of Human Biology, Maastricht Univ., PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.


To investigate the in vivo effects of resistance exercise on translational control in human skeletal muscle, we determined the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), p70/p85-S6 protein kinase (S6K1), and ribosomal S6 protein (S6). Furthermore, we investigated whether changes in the phosphorylation of S6K1 are muscle fiber type specific. Eight male subjects performed a single high-intensity resistance exercise session. Muscle biopsies were collected before and immediately after exercise and after 30 and 120 min of postexercise recovery. The phosphorylation statuses of AMPK, 4E-BP1, S6K1, and S6 were determined by Western blotting with phospho-specific and pan antibodies. To determine fiber type-specific changes in the phosphorylation status of S6K1, immunofluorescence microscopy was applied. AMPK phosphorylation was increased approximately threefold immediately after resistance exercise, whereas 4E-BP1 phosphorylation was reduced to 27 +/- 6% of preexercise values. Phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr421/Ser424 was increased 2- to 2.5-fold during recovery but did not induce a significant change in S6 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of S6K1 was more pronounced in the type II vs. type I muscle fibers. Before exercise, phosphorylated S6K1 was predominantly located in the nuclei. After 2 h of postexercise recovery, phospho-S6K1 was primarily located in the cytosol of type II muscle fibers. We conclude that resistance exercise effectively increases the phosphorylation of S6K1 on Thr421/Ser424, which is not associated with a substantial increase in S6 phosphorylation in a fasted state.

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