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J Dairy Sci. 2006 Feb;89(2):772-8.

Bivariate analysis of number of services to conception and days open in Norwegian red using a censored threshold-linear model.

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Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA.


A bivariate censored threshold-linear model was used to study genetic parameters of number of services to conception (STC) and days open (DO) in first-lactation Norwegian Red (NRF) cows. Records of 1,454,916 NRF cows, with a first insemination from 1980 to 2004, were analyzed. It was assumed that every cow had at least a first insemination. The number of inseminations was recorded until a cow conceived or was culled, whichever occurred first. If a cow was culled before conception, it was considered censored at the number of services until culling was recorded. Twenty-one percent of cows were censored for both STC and DO. Using an univariate probit link function for STC, unobserved liabilities to STC and DO were modeled jointly as a linear function of age at first calving, month-year at first calving, herd-5-yr period, sire of cow and residual effects. Heritability of liability to STC and DO was 4% for each trait. The genetic and residual correlations between STC and DO were 0.77 and 0.68, respectively. There has been little or no genetic change for DO, whereas STC had favorable genetic and phenotypic trends.

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